Structured illumination microscopy (SIM) is an optical super-resolution technique that enables live-cell imaging beyond the diffraction limit. Reconstruction of SIM data is prone to artefacts, which becomes problematic when imaging highly dynamic samples because previous methods rely on the assumption that samples are static. We propose a new transformer-based reconstruction method, VSR-SIM, that uses shifted 3-dimensional window multi-head attention in addition to channel attention mechanism to tackle the problem of video super-resolution (VSR) in SIM. The attention mechanisms are found to capture motion in sequences without the need for common motion estimation techniques such as optical flow. We take an approach to training the network that relies solely on simulated data using videos of natural scenery with a model for SIM image formation. We demonstrate a use case enabled by VSR-SIM referred to as rolling SIM imaging, which increases temporal resolution in SIM by a factor of 9. Our method can be applied to any SIM setup enabling precise recordings of dynamic processes in biomedical research with high temporal resolution.
Get the source code at GitHub.